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german grammar wikipedia

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache (VDS), founded in 1997, supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world. Note that the perfect infinitive of an intransitive verb is created the same way as the static passive infinitive of a transitive verb. A predicative adjective can be the positive, comparative or superlative stem of an adjective, therefore it has the same form as the adverb. They include objects, predicative nouns and adverbial information. In German, vowels (excluding diphthongs; see below) are either short or long, as follows: Short /ɛ/ is realized as [ɛ] in stressed syllables (including secondary stress), but as [ə] in unstressed syllables. [62] This situation has been called a medial diglossia. German readers understand these transcriptions (although they appear unusual), but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling. What German understands such stuff? In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive and in the dative (only in fixed or archaic expressions), and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech. Where a stressed syllable has an initial vowel, it is preceded by, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 19:42. "saints' light": halo (as a religious term), lit. 29). With four cases and three genders plus plural, there are 16 permutations of case and gender/number of the article (not the nouns), but there are only six forms of the definite article, which together cover all 16 permutations. The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for. Approximate distribution of native German speakers (assuming a rounded total of 95 million) worldwide. The states (Bundesländer) of North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria refused to accept it. German is therefore closely related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish (based on Central Franconian dialects – no. The word Städte "cities" is pronounced with a short vowel [ˈʃtɛtə] by some (Jan Hofer, ARD Television) and with a long vowel [ˈʃtɛːtə] by others (Marietta Slomka, ZDF Television). Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianisation, mediated by the church and monasteries. Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific distinction between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz (substitution) of foreign words that are deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.[68]. This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1919. Capital ß (ẞ) was ultimately adopted into German orthography in 2017, ending a long orthographic debate (thus "KREẞLEIN and KRESSLEIN"). Some modal verbs in German are: können, dürfen, müssen, brauchen, wollen, mögen, lassen. Further east, the non-Franconian, East Central German dialects are spoken (Thuringian, Upper Saxon, Ore Mountainian, and Lusatian-New Markish, and earlier, in the then German-speaking parts of Silesia also Silesian, and in then German southern East Prussia also High Prussian). [7], Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines (running through Düsseldorf-Benrath and Krefeld-Uerdingen, respectively) serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift (south of Benrath) from those that were not (north of Uerdingen). Contacto de lenguas en el sur de Chile", Dissemination of the German language in Europe around 1913 (map, 300 dpi), Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, languages with more than 3 million speakers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_language&oldid=991383759, Languages of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2020, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Language articles without reference field, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, Articles with disputed statements from June 2019, Articles containing Swiss Standard German-language text, Articles needing additional references from September 2019, All articles needing additional references, Pages containing links to subscription-or-libraries content, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, novel concerned with the personal development or education of the protagonist, lit.

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